dbSNP contains human single nucleotide variations, microsatellites, and small-scale insertions and deletions along with publication, population frequency, molecular consequence, and genomic and RefSeq mapping information for both common variations and clinical mutations. dbSNP tutorials can be found at https://github.com/ncbi/dbsnp/tree/master/tutorials
The 17,000 NHANES images are available in the following formats:
jpg - full spatial resolution and 8-bit grayscale
jpgahe – jpg with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE)
jpgaheus - jpg with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) followed by unsharp masking
tif8 - full spatial resolution and 8-bit grayscale resolution in TIFF format
tif8roi - A small subset of the cervical spine images is available at full spatial resolution and 8-bit, cropped to regions of interest containing the spine area
fullres - The 17,000 NHANES II images at full spatial and full 12-bit grayscale resolution, in raw "nh2" format, uncompressed
marks - Vertebra coordinate values for a subset of about 600 of the images is available in ASCII text format
Information about the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II)
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control (NCHS/CDC), were designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States through interviews and direct physical examinations.
These images are the digitized versions of the 17,000 x-ray films collected during the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) conducted by the NCHS during the years 1976-1980. In NHANES II 20,322 individuals were both interviewed and examined. For examined persons aged 25 through 74, two x-rays were made, with the exceptions that no x-rays were taken of pregnant women and no lumbar x-rays were taken on women under 50 years of age. X-rays of the cervical and lumbar spines were taken to provide evidence of osteoarthitis and degenerative disc disease.
The films were subsequently digitized at a horizontal and vertical sampling rate of 146 dpi using Lumisys laser scanning equipment.
The NHANES radiographs were scanned by Dr. Bernie Huang at the University of California at Los Angeles and the University of California at San Francisco. Dr. Huang’s group used a Lumysis 100 with a 175 micron spot to scan the first 6000 radiographs. The remaining radiographs were scanned on the Lumysis 150 again with a 175 micron spot size.
NOTE: This dataset is no-longer updated with new content.
The collections described in this Directory database provide research and reference services to scholars interested in the history of the health sciences. Some of the subjects include: dentistry, veterinary medicine, nursing, biomedical sciences, military medicine, and pharmacy. While the Directory is by no means exhaustive, it serves to draw attention to the depth and variety of history of medicine collections available to researchers. In the future, we expect that more institutions will wish to be included.
Disaster Lit®: Database for Disaster Medicine and Public Health is a dataset of links to disaster medicine and public health documents available on the Internet at no cost. Documents include expert guidelines, research reports, conference proceedings, training classes, factsheets, websites, databases, and similar materials selected from over 700 organizations for a professional audience. Materials were selected from non-commercial publishing sources and supplement disaster-related resources from PubMed (biomedical journal literature) and MedlinePlus (health information for the public).
The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The E-utilities use a fixed URL syntax that translates a standard set of input parameters into the values necessary for various NCBI software components to search for and retrieve the requested data. The E-utilities are therefore the structured interface to the Entrez system, which currently includes 38 databases covering a variety of biomedical data, including nucleotide and protein sequences, gene records, three-dimensional molecular structures, and the biomedical literature. Technical Documentation at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK25501/